15 0 obj On to Static Semantics •Lexical analysis –Produces tokens –Detects & eliminates illegal tokens •Parsing –Produces trees –Detects & eliminates ill-formed parse trees •Static semantic analysis –Produces “decorated tree” with additional information attached –Detects & eliminates remaining static errors. stream 2 0 obj endstream >> This is where context is important. Static Semantics: Whether syntactically valid statements have any meaning. ��K0ށi���A����B�ZyCAP8�C���@��&�*���CP=�#t�]���� 4�}���a � ��ٰ;G���Dx����J�>���� ,�_“@��FX�DB�X$!k�"��E�����H�q���a���Y��bVa�bJ0՘c�VL�6f3����bձ�X'�?v 6��-�V`�`[����a�;���p~�\2n5��׌���� �&�x�*���s�b|!� O*��?�����f�����`ϳ�g���C/����O�ϩ�+F�F�G�Gό���z����ˌ��ㅿ)����ѫ�~w��gb���k��?Jި�9���m�d���wi獵�ޫ�?�����c�Ǒ��O�O���?w| ��x&mf������ the code example above fails the static semantics check, because assigning strings to an integer variable is meaningless, no mater what the actual values are. 13 0 obj The document is structured as follows. << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /ColorSpace << /Cs1 8 0 R >> /Font << /TT3 11 0 R Static Semantics? Stored Computer Program computes a set of predefined instructions stored in electronic memory. endobj that which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet; So Romeo would, were he not Romeo call’d …” The above-mentioned quote is, in fact, conveying figurative meaning. endobj As a simple example, some URLs are not addresses of static pages stored on Web servers, but rather act as directives to the server to initiate some computation. The most widely adopted semantic entry for modals in update semantics is the test semantics proposed by Frank Veltman. %PDF-1.3 1 Introduction Program analyses often rely on the data manipulated by programs and can therefore depend on their static fields. 10/6/06 Prof. Hilfinger, CS164 Lecture 15 11 Static vs. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and In the static semantics of a Montage, we can give static semantics actions for the Montage. "Based on the distinction between the meanings of words and the meanings of sentences, we can recognize two main divisions in the study of semantics: lexical semantics and phrasal semantics.Lexical semantics is the study of word meaning, whereas phrasal semantics is … 4 0 obj Imperative knowledge is the method on how you reached to that fact. A well-formed model conforms to its static semantics. Semantics: There should not be more than one meaning associated with any statement because computer cannot figure out which is the correct intended meaning. Similarly, there is a particular syntax in any other language. /TT1 9 0 R >> >> ��.3\����r���Ϯ�_�Yq*���©�L��_�w�ד������+��]�e�������D��]�cI�II�OA��u�_�䩔���)3�ѩ�i�����B%a��+]3='�/�4�0C��i��U�@ёL(sYf����L�H�$�%�Y�j��gGe��Q�����n�����~5f5wug�v����5�k��֮\۹Nw]������m mH���Fˍe�n���Q�Q��`h����B�BQ�-�[l�ll��f��jۗ"^��b���O%ܒ��Y}W�����������w�vw����X�bY^�Ю�]�����W�Va[q`i�d��2���J�jGէ������{�����׿�m���>���Pk�Am�a�����꺿g_D�H��G�G��u�;��7�7�6�Ʊ�q�o���C{��P3���8!9������-?��|������gKϑ���9�w~�Bƅ��:Wt>���ҝ����ˁ��^�r�۽��U��g�9];}�}��������_�~i��m��p���㭎�}��]�/���}������.�{�^�=�}����^?�z8�h�c��' �l����"�NF�H��S|��娚\:�JUz��l��~�h����^����c��u-���{�~�\�� stream Example code fragment illustrating variables and their static and dynamic semantics: {int fred; causes fred (integer, var) to be added to the static environment. For example, the static semantics in SysML do not allow a requirement to contain a system component, although other relationships are allowed between components and requirements such as the satisfy relationship. %��������� The static semantics of a language is only indirectly related to the meaning of programs during … Static and Dynamic Semantics: Static Semantics – It is named so because of the fact that these are checked at compile time. more or less abstract execution Keywords: static analysis, Java, semantics, class initialization, control flow, verification. Ⱦ�h���s�2z���\�n�LA"S���dr%�,�߄l��t� endobj �`����2 We write def(s;x) is the execution of statement swill define s. This is an example of a must-property: we want to be sure that whenever sexecutes (and completes normally, without returning from the current function or raising an exception of Types and Static Semantic Analysis Stephen A. Edwards Columbia University Fall 2010 About the Book Author. Static Semantics L10.3 its current value does not matter for this statement, or any subsequent statement. locf, locp), and include fred locf and ptr locp in the dynamic environment. at run-time, obtain two variables each of one location (e.g. Declarative knowledge is statement of facts. As an example of a language rule that cannot be specified in BNF, consider the common rule that all variables must be declared before they are referenced. Static and Dynamic Semantics. �fHX�|�ӊv D��a愸T}�O�wȦY������X�q���o���3Q?xR�s��2�J�o g/�^2]��z�-�ɷ!n���W��0u��t��b!LB.�z��L��p�•����#�}��Z����5�F��ݯiG�q���D� _��yx5!����^x-�� �C �z����9�F���#^��+�ݵr>� �`��k9��!�B��r��)��t��倴��旷? I really need the basics right now, and thanks in advanced!! << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> This is a series of posts of all the lectures and we’ll include all exam oriented points from the course-ware. [ /ICCBased 12 0 R ] produced by the static semantics, while K-Java uses (a subset of) plain Java. :) Examples would be much appreciated too! Traditional approaches require manual construction of static and dynamic semantics, followed by a proof that the … In the next post, we will start with basic data-types in Python. for example: While playing computer games a missile tracks you down if you fly over a ‘Non-Civilian’ area. On Extracting Static Semantics John Hannan Department of Computer Science and Engineering The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802, USA Abstract We examine the problem of automatically extracting a static semantics from a language’s semantic definition. for example: “Mouse Cat Dog” is not in a correct syntax as far as English language is concerned. for example: π = circumference of any circle/diameter of that circle. This example was already proposed for study under the static semantics (Examples (2.17) and (2.22)), but it is somewhat easier to handle in the dynamic semantics. Static semantics concerns itself with the meaning that can be derived without actually executing the program; e.g. This work describes an object-oriented approach to doing so, called lazy delegation. Static Semantics L9.5 from the premises to the conclusion, or from the conclusion to the premises. Some-times, the same property can be specified in different directions. �FV>2 u�����/�_$\�B�Cv�< 5]�s.,4�&�y�Ux~xw-bEDCĻH����G��KwF�G�E�GME{E�EK�X,Y��F�Z� �={$vr����K���� It was the first year of the launch of edX and MIT’s 6.00x course was offered free of cost, along with certification. Semantics? Examples include checking that every identifier is declared before it is used (in languages that require such declarations) or that the labels on the arms of a case statement are distinct. ! They are executed during the static analysis. In the next chapter a short introduction to Message Se­ quence Charts is given. The reasons for doing so are the same as for formalizing the dynamic semantics. [46] .expected_type<-.actual_type -> [1] + var[2] R2. For compiled languages, static semantics essentially include those semantic rules that can be checked at compile time. << /Length 16 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> Most static analyses tell something about all executions of a program. Note: Lecture 16: Static Semantics Overview1 Administrivia • Firstin-classtest11March. We’ll consider Python syntaxes later as we proceed, as for now 3.2 + 3.2 is a syntactically valid statement. Software Engineer, a product person, delves into graphic designs on lazy weekends or writes blog posts about software engineering and life experiences. He has written books on C#, Java, Windows programming, and VBA, and is coauthor of the bestselling C++ All-in-One For Dummies.C++ All-in-One For Dummies. This is needed, for example, to validate compiler optimizations. The problem is that the program you wrote is not the program you wanted to write. PLEASE EXPLAIN THIS TO ME IN DETAIL. What is Syntax? What’s in a name? PSpec ≉ l d Protocol but PSpec ⊏ ˜ l d Protocol. But, the word cougar has also come to indicate an older woman who’s dating a younger man. It has been proven that this rule cannot be specified in BNF. Static Semantics • A global variable is a variable that can be used any where in a program • A local variable is only available within the block where it is declaredwhere it is declared • A block is a program construct that includes local declarations • An activation of a block is the time interval that the block is executed / Faculteit Wiskunde en Informatica 28-9-2011PAGE 12 Its for my personal reference & also for those who would like to revisit the course. Syntax concerns the form of a valid program, while semantics concerns its meaning; Static semantic rules are enforced by a compiler at compile time; Implemented in semantic analysis phase of the compiler; Context-free grammars are not powerful enough to describe certain rules, such as checking variable declaration with variable use Nick Rimer, author of Introducing Semantics, goes into detail about the two categories of semantics. Static analisis is a more complicated process, to find some warnings, bugs, etc, without running program. Identifying semantic errors can be tricky because it requires you to work backward by looking at the output of the program and trying to figure out what it is doing. There are 3 main points to note from the first class. We want to argue that: EXAMPLE 2.28. For example there are many tools for statical analisys like PVS-Studio, Intellij Idea inspections, and so on. The question-mark in the URL is a signal for the server to retrieve some named … This problem exemplifies the categories of language rules called static semantics rule. Examples of Semantics in Literature Example #1: Romeo and Juliet (By William Shakespeare) Juliet: “O, be some other name! ��հ����?���e��A�M��y]��sR5�>a��4��ƍ�l4JZ�F�T#ۀa���J�1. I believe the best way to revise is to recall examples. More details about this restriction can be found in the following example. The static semantics and meaning of program during execution, are indirectly related. Functional correctness is also formulated in terms of a predicate on observable behaviours, i.e. That missile is an example of fixed computer program. Report Documentation Page Form Approved OMB No. We give a static analysis of safety, i.e., the absence of security errors, that is simpler than previous pro-posals. Conceptual Semantics - Conceptual semantics deals with the most basic concept and form of a word before our thoughts and feelings added context to it. 4�.0,` �3p� ��H�.Hi@�A>� Check your understanding If you can, relate it to me with stuff i would be familiar with. << /Length 13 0 R /N 3 /Alternate /DeviceRGB /Filter /FlateDecode >> For compiled languages, static semantics essentially include those semantic rules that can be checked at compile time. Example: float x = 10.1; float y = x*30; In the above example integer 30 will be typecasted to float 30.0 before multiplication, by semantic analyzer. Retired competitive programmer. In Chapter 3 some basic notions on relations and multisets are recapitu­ lated. For example, at its most basic we know a cougar to be a large wild cat. E�6��S��2����)2�12� ��"�įl���+�ɘ�&�Y��4���Pޚ%ᣌ�\�%�g�|e�TI� ��(����L 0�_��&�l�2E�� ��9�r��9h� x�g��Ib�טi���f��S�b1+��M�xL����0��o�E%Ym�h�����Y��h����~S�=�z�U�&�ϞA��Y�l�/� �$Z����U �m@��O� � �ޜ��l^���'���ls�k.+�7���oʿ�9�����V;�?�#I3eE妧�KD����d�����9i���,�����UQ� ��h��6'~�khu_ }�9P�I�o= C#$n?z}�[1 x���N�0E����ۦ����" �T�`�R��.�}�N-����dw�s��X@�14�1`��'|��V� 8 0 obj stream << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Resources 6 0 R /Contents 4 0 R /MediaBox [0 0 792 612] x��wTS��Ͻ7��" %�z �;HQ�I�P��&vDF)VdT�G�"cE��b� �P��QDE�݌k �5�ޚ��Y�����g�}׺ P���tX�4�X���\���X��ffG�D���=���HƳ��.�d��,�P&s���"7C$ For example, other projects can use our static semantics to reduce the set of Java programs they need to handle. endstream As the web matures, there are many ways in which static semantics are being augmented and supplanted by dynamic semantics. Before we begin with any language, it's important to know the aspects of the language. ASM-Java is monolithic, while in K-Java the static and the dynamic semantics are two separate definitions that can be used independently. We started revising 2 weeks prior the exam and I had this idea of posting the revision on this blog for easy access in future. 1FrommaterialbyR.BodikandP.Hilfinger Lastmodified: FriFeb2702:32:572015 CS164:Lecture#16 1. I, along with a friend of mine, started the classes. �ı�:�Xjt�2x�1���Sʄi�g�> T�ZP����1ց��4�%;j GJ��6�^����nHIo��=h�:g]����'�9���;���2��v�:0� vtL�;�̢? 2612 [1] The test semantics for modals: C [ φ ] = { C if C [ φ ] ≠ ∅ ∅ otherwise {\displaystyle C[\Diamond \varphi ]={\begin{cases}C&{\text{if }}C[\varphi ]\neq \varnothing \\\varnothing &{\text{otherwise}}\end{cases}}} Static Semantics: Whether syntactically valid statements have any meaning. x�VYs�@~�_��vS�����t:�[fā��@���崙��2 3�K���$�]�Ŏ⒊����i>�o4�ˏ�������w�F�̦�9��%�Fd���F.�5O�u�+m�������PQ�BD�Rm�~�y�Z�f�� ]Vk^��;�!� 6 0 obj n08 Syntax: Let’s take an example to understand this. The modeling tool should enforce the constraints imposed by the static semantics or provide a report of violations. endobj .actual_type<-if ([1].actual_type= int) and ([2].actual_type= int) then int else real endif predicate: .actual_type== .expected_type A1�v�jp ԁz�N�6p\W� p�G@ Example: Axiomatic Semantics (1) The meaning of a command c is given by specifying a precondition and a postcondition: {PRE} c {POST} This says: If PRE holds for a program state, then executing c in that state will terminate and POST will hold in the resulting state. requirements (static semantics) of Message Sequence Charts need to be formalized. In addition, some syntax rules have some restric- tions which can be represented in the condition part of a Montage. We give a denotational semantics in “eager” form, and show that it is equivalent to the “lazy” s emantics using stack inspection. 331 Similarly 3/'three' is a static semantic error in Python because int 3 is being divided by string 'three' Categories of Semantics . endobj 5 0 obj Unlike instance fields, static fields are unique to each class and one would like to benefit from this uniqueness to infer precise information about their content. for example: “I are big”… the syntax is correct, but there’s a static semantic error that we know as grammatical error. My goal in this work is not only to add static semantics to macros, but show that it is necessary and possible to link these semantics across language levels. We identify several program transformations that can be used to remove run-time checks. I'm taking an free online introductory course to computer science and programming with MIT and I don't fully understand the syntax, static semantics, and semantics stuff. CGI scripts are an example of this. endobj for example: Very simple arithmetic and logic units, a simple calculator has predefined set of instructions on what to do if user inputs 2 + 5. They are devised to perform only specific task. ߏƿ'� Zk�!� $l$T����4Q��Ot"�y�\b)���A�I&N�I�$R$)���TIj"]&=&�!��:dGrY@^O�$� _%�?P�(&OJEB�N9J�@y@yC�R �n�X����ZO�D}J}/G�3���ɭ���k��{%O�חw�_.�'_!J����Q�@�S���V�F��=�IE���b�b�b�b��5�Q%�����O�@��%�!BӥyҸ�M�:�e�0G7��ӓ����� e%e[�(����R�0`�3R��������4�����6�i^��)��*n*|�"�f����LUo�՝�m�O�0j&jaj�j��.��ϧ�w�ϝ_4����갺�z��j���=���U�4�5�n�ɚ��4ǴhZ�Z�Z�^0����Tf%��9�����-�>�ݫ=�c��Xg�N��]�. The meaning of the program (its semantics) is wrong. It's go deeper than semantics analysis and produce more detailed results. Example Semantic Rules & Predicates Syntax Rule Semantic Rule -> = R1. Fixed Computer Program computes precisely only computation. However, its surrounding text clarifies the meaning. languages frequently include new static semantics, which may be lost in the translation process. I’ll try to include fitting examples for each concept. char *ptr; causes ptr (char*, var) to be added. ;���Wg���j��z��ٺ�r0C���E-�˕��{R��y�r�7ʁ\"�z&�Y��'� 2���Qc\��(���c���N�OW�\�$���(�\�:`�e��b#8��(N�;=p���:�}��4%�Y��U�ڲ=�ζ���ͬ���k ��'�f2g��lJ�)�D&�'�d��K��J`vJYI��x-+;�re�R\�0�b,��S� �� @�ǁ$� U�7a ��E|��aT1z8���} bR�T�.k�91mٌ��:Se��M'��S �n4��tw+�"E��=�QE��}�nBt%Ҟ6dO�a웙�}�T�4��Rr�D�`i9�b�]�]�r�{ÕI�A. This post explain these terms with examples. This is a part of what I learned in an online Open Course Ware offered by MIT on edX. [7A�\�SwBOK/X/_�Q�>Q�����G�[��� �`�A�������a�a��c#����*�Z�;�8c�q��>�[&���I�I��MS���T`�ϴ�k�h&4�5�Ǣ��YY�F֠9�=�X���_,�,S-�,Y)YXm�����Ěk]c}džj�c�Φ�浭�-�v��};�]���N����"�&�1=�x����tv(��}�������'{'��I�ߝY�)� Σ��-r�q�r�.d.�_xp��Uە�Z���M׍�v�m���=����+K�G�ǔ����^���W�W����b�j�>:>�>�>�v��}/�a��v���������O8� � John Paul Mueller is a veteran technical editor and an expert on computer industry certifications. endobj 12 0 obj At the end of the course, we had a final exam. Lecture 15: Static Semantics: Scope and Type1 1FrommaterialbyG.NeculaandP.Hilfinger Lastmodified: ThuFeb2821:35:342019 CS164:Lecture#17 1 Static vs. Not the program you wanted to write the condition part of a Montage rules have some restric- tions which be! Semantics: Whether syntactically valid statements have any meaning a Montage in chapter 3 some basic notions on relations multisets... Is simpler than previous pro-posals var > = < expr > R1 delves into designs... 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